- Employers have the right to demand an inspection warrant from OSHA.
- Nonemployee third parties (e.g. union representatives) can potentially be excluded from participating in the inspection.
- An opening conference can be used to negotiate the scope of the inspection, inquire about its purpose, and establish ground rules.
- The employer has the right to be present during the walkaround, take parallel evidence, and participate in management interviews.
- Post-inspection, employers can contest OSHA citations and protect their trade secrets from disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).
- OSHA inspections must be conducted reasonably, granting employers the right to contest overly burdensome or disruptive inspection requests.
Understanding Your Right to an Inspection Warrant
During an OSHA inspection, you have the right to demand an inspection warrant. As granted by the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, employers are shielded from unreasonable searches and seizures, which include inspections by OSHA. OSHA may only inspect a workplace if they have ‘administrative probable cause’ – a belief that a violative condition exists within the workplace. Therefore, you have the right to request an inspection warrant that establishes OSHA’s probable cause to inspect.
Excluding Nonemployee Third Parties
Under certain circumstances, employers may assert their right to exclude nonemployee third parties from participating in the inspection process. OSHA’s interpretation letter suggests that employees at a nonunion worksite may authorize a third party affiliated with a union or community organization to act as the employees’ representative during an inspection. However, if you interpret the standard differently, you may exercise your rights to exclude third parties from the inspection by demanding and challenging a warrant.
Maximizing the Opening Conference
An opening conference with OSHA presents an opportunity to negotiate the scope of the inspection, understand the probable cause justifying the inspection, and establish ground rules for how the inspection may proceed. If an employee complaint initiated the inspection, you have the right to access a copy of the complaint before consenting to the inspection.
Your Rights during the Walkaround
Once the OSHA inspection begins, you have the right to accompany the compliance officer at all times during the walkaround. This also includes the right to take side-by-side photographs and document other physical evidence that OSHA takes during the inspection.
Management Interviews and Binding Statements
Another key right pertains to management interviews. The statements made by management representatives during these interviews are binding for the company. The Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act allows employers to be present when such binding statements are taken, so you have the right to be present and participate in interviews of management witnesses.
Following an OSHA inspection, you have the right to contest any citations issued by OSHA. These are merely allegations, and you have the right to challenge them before independent administrative law judges. Furthermore, you can protect your trade secrets and confidential business information from disclosure to third parties through FOIA requests. If you identify your information as confidential, OSHA will either refuse to produce the information in response to a third-party FOIA request, or will notify you about the request, allowing you to justify your confidentiality claim.
The Reasonableness of OSHA Inspections
Finally, OSHA inspections must be conducted reasonably, meaning that the timing, scope, and manner of inspections must be reasonable. This provides employers with the right to resist overly burdensome or disruptive inspection requests, such as sudden employee interviews on the manufacturing floor or requests for a large volume of documents. Based on Section 8(a) of the OSH Act, you can request that interviews be scheduled in advance and conducted in an office, or negotiate more limited document productions.
In conclusion, while OSHA inspections may feel like navigating a minefield, a comprehensive understanding of your rights can help you manage the process more effectively and assertively. Being well-informed can make a significant difference in your handling of OSHA inspections, potentially reducing the likelihood of citations and minimizing disruptions to your operations.